Tuesday, August 25, 2020

Business free essay sample

Presently assume the administration forces a for each unit deals expense of 20 pence per kilogram in the spread market. What are the suggestions at the market harmony cost and amount? [Tutors: Please start by attracting a graph to show the effect of the expense and the register the new harmony. The post-charge cost paid by buyers is processed by perceiving that the customer and maker costs are extraordinary. We would thus be able to rehash the interest and gracefully works for spread as: Qd = 20 †0. 05Pc Qs = †10 + 0. 20Ps , where Ps is the value providers get and Pc is the cost paid by customers. The duty drives a wedge between the value purchasers address and the cost providers get, with the end goal that t = Pc †Ps. On the off chance that we substitute Ps = Pc t into the flexibly condition we get: Qs = †10 + 0. 20(Pc t) , If we set interest equivalent to flexibly we have: 20 †0. 05Pc = - 10 + 0. 2(Pc †t) Hence: Pc = (30 + 0. 20? 20)/0. 25 = 136. In this manner, the post-charge cost is ? 1. We will compose a custom exposition test on Business or then again any comparative point explicitly for you Don't WasteYour Time Recruit WRITER Just 13.90/page 36 for each kilogram. Subbing the cost into request (it could likewise have been subbed into the gracefully work), we can process the post-charge harmony amount: Qd = 20 †0. 05? 136 = 13. 2 thousand kilograms of spread for every day. The cost got by providers is given by Ps = Pc †t = 136 †20 = 116. (b) Who causes the more noteworthy weight of the duty †customers or makers? We realize that the pre-charge cost was ? 1. 20. After the assessment, the shopper pays 16 pence more and the provider gets 4 pence less. The customer loads 80% of the expense and the maker just 20%. (c) Compute and decipher the deadweight loss of tax assessment in this market. (Note: the deadweight misfortune is otherwise called the overabundance trouble) The upper triangle is [1. 36 †1. 20]? 0. 5? [14-13. 2] = ? 0. 064 thousand or ? 64 every day. The lower triangle is [1. 20 †1. 16]? 0. 5? [14-13. 2] = ? 0. 016 thousand or ? 16 every day. The general assessment take every day is 0. 2? 13. 2 = ? 2. 64 thousand or ? 2640 every day. The deadweight misfortunes or the abundance weight of tax collection speaks to just ? 80 every day or 3% of the expense income. The little overabundance weight of tax collection for this situation is because of the inelastic interest for spread and its relating inelastic gracefully. 2. A financial aspects instructor is thinking about leaving the University of Sussex and opening a consultancy business. For his administrations as a specialist he would be paid ? 5,000 for each annum. To set up the business the speaker must change over into an office a house he at present claims and from which he gathers rents of ? 1000 every month. He should recruit a secretary at a compensation of ? 20,000 every year and must pull back ? 10,000 from his 10% per annum fixed rate investment account to use for various costs. The University of Sussex pays the financial aspects speaker ? 35,000 every year. Based on a simply monetary examination, do you foresee that the financial matters teacher will leave the University to fire up his own business? At the end of the day yield keeps on increasing however at a lessening rate. Recollect that yield at first increments at an expanding rate, at that point increments at a diminishing rate, at that point may diminish. In the primary stage the MP is rising yet when a greater amount of the variable information is added to the fixed factor the pace of increment in yield begins to fall and this is the place the MP begins to fall and the theory of unavoidable losses sets in. Whenever yield really decreases as a greater amount of the variable information is added to the fixed factor, the MP must be negative. b) Property charges, building protection installments and devaluation of plant and gear are fixed expenses. Valid. These are altogether costs that don't fluctuate with yield as are fixed expenses. (c) The open door cost alludes to the cost that a firm acquires to hold the utilization of the contribution for the firm. Valid. These are the understood costs a firm causes to hold its sources of info. (d) If since quite a while ago run all out costs rise quicker than yield then we have the instance of expanding comes back to scale. Bogus. In the event that all out expenses are rising quicker than yield it must imply that normal expenses are rising. This isn't the situation of expanding comes back to scale (or economies of scale) however of diminishing comes back to scale (or diseconomies of scale). (e) Diminishing returns and diminishing comes back to scale are various methods of saying something very similar. Bogus. This is a typical false notion. There is no immediate connection between the idea of consistent losses and the idea of profits to scale. The previous (unavoidable losses) speaks to a short-run idea where certain elements are held fixed and the last mentioned (diminishing comes back to scale) speaks to a since a long time ago run idea where all information sources are permitted to differ. On the off chance that minor expense is over the normal cost, the normal cost must be falling. Bogus in the event that MC is above AC, at that point AC must be rising. On the off chance that the negligible expense is over the normal cost, at that point each extra unit created is adding an expense to the firm that is over the normal. In the event that you add a number to the normal that is more noteworthy than the normal, the normal must ascent. For example, the normal of the accompanying succession 2,4,6 is 4. On the off chance that we add 8 to this succession, the minimal number, and take the normal we acquire 5. On the other hand, in the event that we add 2 to this arrangement we get a normal of 3. 5. Business free paper test The Woodson Foundation, a huge philanthropic social help office is collaborating with the state funded educational system in Washington D. C. to improve understudy results. There’s abundant opportunity to get better. The schools have issues with truancy, low understudy execution, and wrongdoing. New staff rapidly wear out as their underlying excitement for helping understudies is blunted by the unforgiving real factors they experience in the homeroom. Turnover among new educators is extremely high, and a significant number of the best and most splendid are the well on the way to leave for schools that aren’t as grieved. The Stags of Group Development for the Woodsom establishment in building a durable alliance The First Stage is acquiring the new arrangement advancement is framing an official improvement advisory group or group with the assistance of Human Resource to pick the correct possibility for the occupations. The Second Stage will storm which gives struggle towards each and singular gathering and makes questions additionally each gathering have its own advantages and a few cases they can straightforwardly restricted to each other. We will compose a custom exposition test on Business or then again any comparable theme explicitly for you Don't WasteYour Time Recruit WRITER Just 13.90/page For this stage they must be function as a group and leave all the escalated and dicey conduct outside of the group. At that point just this stage work The Third Stage will be Norming in this for the accomplishing the specific reason the objectives have set up to begin the exhibition and the group has figure out how to put aside your questions and how to learn work gainfully together. Who will accomplish what work and how it will be practiced The Final however not the least is Performing this stage will give us the fulfillment when the genuine cooperation together to accomplishing the objective set up by the association, and all the efficiency have been appears and accomplished. The Group has stuck in the phases of Forming and Storming as they couldn't get over their own idea and couldn't completely synchronize to accomplishing the offered objective to them. Recognizing the Problems in Woodsom Foundation

Saturday, August 22, 2020

Two Wheelers In India Marketing Essay

Bikes In India Marketing Essay Riding a bike gives once a felling of opportunity and appreciating the regular excellence. In India bikes are commonly favored in light of their minimal sizes moderate procedure, low support and simple credit reimbursement. On the off chance that we see Indian lanes they are commonly topped off of bikes. Theâ trendâ ofâ owningâ two wheelersâ in India is due to a variety of facts. One of the chief  is poor public transport in many parts of India.  Additionally, two-wheelersâ offerâ aâ greatâ dealâ ofâ convenienceâ and versatility forâ the Indianâ family. India is the third biggest maker of Two wheelers on the planet it come only close to Japan and China. In most recent couple of years the Indian bikes industry has got breathtaking development. Bike industry in India has a little start in mid 50s. The Automobile Products of India (API) began fabricating bikes in the nation which was later taken over by Bajaj Auto. Albeit different government and private ventures entered the conflict for bikes, the main new player that has kept going till today is LML. The bike portion of India was at first ruled by Escorts175cc bicycle and Enfield 350cc bicycles. In mid 80s the bike showcase was opened to outside rivalry. Also, the then market pioneers Escorts and Enfield were gotten ignorant by the attack of the 100ccâ bikes of the four Indo-Japanese joint endeavors. With the accessibility of eco-friendly low powerâ â bikes, interest for this expand which brings about Hero Honda then the main maker of four stroke bikes(100cc classification), increasing a top opening. The main Japanese bikes were presented in the mid eighties. TVS Suzuki and Hero Honda acquired the initial two-stroke and four-stroke motor cruisers separately.  TVS Suzuki and Hero Honda at first began with get together of CKD units which later on advanced to indigenous assembling. During the 90s the Japanese cruisers has gotten significant development for bike section , which developed at aâ rate of almost 25% CAGR in the lastâ five years. The bike business had a smooth ride during the 50s, 60s and 70s when the Government has precluded new sections and controlled limit development carefully. In 80s the business saw an abrupt development and a pinnacle volume of 1.9 mn vehicles. The whole car industry saw an uncommon fall sought after in the year 1990 which brought about decay of interest by 15% in 1991 and 8% in 1992, bringing about a creation loss of 0.4mn vehicles. Legend Honda demonstrated a peripheral decrease in 1992 and all the significant makers experienced downturn in Fy 1993-1994. The purposes behind downturn in the segment were high information costs , perpetual ascent in fuel costs and marked down buying intensity of the ind ividuals because of huge ascent when all is said in done value level and credit crunch was there buyer financing. Later with advancement of monetary circumstance, deals ofâ two wheeler expanded increased.â In the last eight to ten years, the two-wheelerâ market has seen a move from bikes to bikes. Especially in the provincial regions, customers have begun inclining toward sturdier bicycles to withstand the terrible street conditions. Key Factors influencing deals of Motorcycles: The different variables which impact the deals of cruisers are Petroleum Prices-As they decide the running expense of the vehicles so change in the valuing arrangement of Government of India will affect bikes deals. Improvement in discretionary cashflow unquestionably play a multiplier impact on the requests of buyer durables. Straightforwardness on the accessibility of credits will prompts increment sought after of bikes. Key players inâ the Two-wheeler Industry: There are numerous bike makers in India the significant players are as per the following: Legend Honda Motors Ltd (HHML) - Bajaj Auto Ltd (Bajaj Auto) and - TVS Motor Company Ltd (TVS) Dynamic Motor Company Ltd(KMCL),  Yamaha Motors India Ltd(Yamaha), Regal Enfield Ltd (REL) and Honda Motorcycle Scooter India (P) Ltd (HMSI). Different bicycles models: 100 cc bicycles section: The bicycles in this section are commonly straightforward and are very little costly and their principle target clients are center salary individuals. These bicycles expend less fuel as they have 100 cc engine and they are appropriate for voyaging longer separation. The bicycles in 100 cc are most appropriately can be said as an incentive for cash. The different contending bicycles in this fragment are : - Bajaj Discoverâ 100, Bajaj Platina 100, Saint Honda Passion Plus, - Hero Honda Splendor Plus and Yamaha Crux TVS STAR City We are going to look at the accompanying referenced models: Bajaj Discoverâ 100 Saint Honda Splendor Plus Yamaha Crux TVS Centra Bajaj Discover 100 Brand Name Bajaj Discover Parent Company Bajaj Auto Classification Cruiser Division Bike Automobile Slogan/Slogan Find India with the intensity of 1 liter USP It give great mileage Brand Ambassador Development: Bajaj Discover is a cruiser brand claimed by Bajaj Auto in India. It was propelled in 2004 and from that point forward it was an enormous achievement in bike section and can be appropriately called workers bicycle. It has a second era DTS-Si four stroke motor. Find gives high force and high torque which can create up to 7500 rpm and torque of 5000 rpm. Bajaj has propelled 100cc Discover DTS-Si which has second era motor and give a normal of 75km/hr on street speed in city and 83km/hr on thruways and being named as significant distance Bike. It has 5 transmission riggings to give steady transmission. The Bajaj Discover DTS-Si will be accessible in four shading i.e red, blue, profound dark and green. Bajaj Discover DTS-Si 100cc has unrivaled solidness as the various Discoverâ bikes in india. A portion of the exceptional plan highlights of this bike are LED tail-light, amalgam haggles all dark introduction with alluring chrome styling components. This recently propelled Bajaj bike is stuffed to convey unrivaled execution through polycot cylinder with the durable Discover configuration and yielding total solace changed highlights like ergonomically planned seats.â Highlights: Electric beginning framework Longest wheelbase in the whole section Full DC electrical framework Auto stifle that helps in simple beginning Nitrox suspension that makes riding agreeable even on harsh streets Support free battery alongside charge marker 5 speed gear box Target Segment: Bajaj Discover is mostly focusing on the lower white collar class individuals who look an incentive for cash and need a bicycle that give great mileage and look a la mode. Target Group: Youth of white collar class in age gathering of 25-35 years. Situating: A bicycle that can be utilized for investigating new roads. SWOT ANALYSIS OF BAJAJ DISCOVER SWOT Quality 1.Strong brand name and immense marketâ 2.Excellent dissemination through franchiseesâ 3.Most dependable for Indian streets as it requires low support 4.Good mileage Shortcoming 1. Spotlights on just mileage Opportunity 1. Extension in country and level 2 citiesâ 2. Developments in innovation Dangers 1. New entrantsâ 2. Competitorsâ 3. Ease bicycles Legend Honda Splendor Brand Name Legend Honda(Hero MotoCorp) Splendor Parent Company Legend Honda Class Bikes Division Bike Slogan/Slogan Yaari ki Gaadi; Desh ki dhadkan USP A bicycle with low support and great mileage Brand Ambassador The biggest bicycle assembling of nation Hero Honda has got excessively rich and top of the line bicycle in its steady that is Hero Honda Splendor, the all out variation of the brand are 4. Legend Honda has as of late redesigned its Hero Honda Splendor Super model and the new bicycle is valued at Rs. 45950 in Delhi. Legend Honda propelled its leader model Hero Honda Splendorâ in the year 1994 and it carry name and popularity to the organization in a split second since the dispatch. Simply after a hole of 6 years, Hero Honda Splendorâ was pronounced World No. 1 biggest selling single bike model. The fundamental model of the Hero Honda Splendorâ was having just standard gear just yet innovation was marvelous subsequently the bicycle made records after records of selling. In the year 2003, Hero Honda overhauled the essential model of Hero Honda Splendorâ and propelled a patched up rendition named as Hero Honda Splendor Plus which additionally observed a major achievement. The organization reported to sell the essential and improved model next to each other yet suspended the previous quietly after at some point. Presently only Hero Honda Splendor Plus form is accessible in showcase. The Hero Honda Splendor Plus is fueled by an air cooled, 4 stroke, single chamber OHC motor with 97.2 cc of relocation. The motor produces top intensity of 7.4 bhp at 8,000 rpm and stir top torque of 7.95 Nm at 5,000 rpm. It utilizes world class suspension and brakes which can be called as the USP of Hero Honda bicycles in India. The new symbol of Hero Honda Splendorâ sports compound wheels, pass light, protective cap lock and helpful pointers switch. The organization further patched up the Hero Honda Splendorâ brand and propelled Hero Honda Splendor Super in the year 2005. It is a greater machine than its forerunners. The bicycle is stacked with 125cc, 4-Stroke OHC, Single Cylinder, Air Cooled motor which stirs greatest intensity of 9 bhp at 7,000 rpm while belts out 10.35 Nm of pinnacle torque at 4,000 rpm. Different changes on this bicycle incorporate, self beginning, greater motor, more extensive wheelbase and bicycle weight. The most recent contribution in the Hero Honda stable is Hero Honda Splendor NXG which was propelled in the year 2007. Essentially the bicycle was planned and propelled focusing on youth in this manner more illustrations, self beginning, composite haggles look. Without precedent for Hero Honda history, it included self beginning alternative, following a time of the dispatch, to a passage level bicycle alongside dark composite wheels. What's more, ne age Pro Series Engines is incorpo

Monday, August 10, 2020

Why PTSD and IBS Occur Together

Why PTSD and IBS Occur Together PTSD Related Conditions Print The Relationship Between PTSD and IBS By Matthew Tull, PhD twitter Matthew Tull, PhD is a professor of psychology at the University of Toledo, specializing in post-traumatic stress disorder. Learn about our editorial policy Matthew Tull, PhD Medically reviewed by Medically reviewed by Steven Gans, MD on August 05, 2016 Steven Gans, MD is board-certified in psychiatry and is an active supervisor, teacher, and mentor at Massachusetts General Hospital. Learn about our Medical Review Board Steven Gans, MD Updated on January 08, 2020 Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Overview Symptoms & Diagnosis Causes & Risk Factors Treatment Living With In Children Anna Bizon / Getty Images At first glance, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) may not seem to have any special connection. However, PTSD and IBS often occur together. If you have PTSD, IBS, or both, understanding how theyre connected can help you seek out the most appropriate treatment. Irritable Bowel Syndrome Statistics and Causes IBS is a digestive disorder thats more common than you may think. Here are some statistics: Between 25 and 45 million Americans have IBSTen percent to 15 percent of people worldwide have IBSIBS is more common among women; 2 out of 3 sufferers are femaleMost people who have IBS are under 50 years old People with IBS have chronic abdominal pain and major problems with bowel function such as urgent diarrhea, chronic constipation, or, at different times, both. IBS appears to stem from a malfunction in how the intestines work; however, this malfunction is not well understood or easily detected. The causes of IBS are not completely understood either, but there is evidence connecting IBS with certain mental health problems. For example, compared to people without IBS, people with IBS are more likely to have mood and anxiety disorders. The mental health problems occur first, then the IBS, suggesting that having any of these problems may increase your risk of developing IBS. The Connection Between PTSD and IBS If you have PTSD, youll be interested to learn that anxiety disorders, particularly PTSD, are the mental health problems most likely to occur before IBS. In fact, theres a strong link between stress and IBS. People who have IBS also seem to have higher rates of exposure to traumatic events. For example, one study of  21,264  urban African Americans found that 8.2 percent had IBS, with nearly 82 percent of those are female. The study also found a strong association between PTSD and IBS: African Americans with IBS are twice as likely to also have PTSD. ?A study  of women veterans with and without IBS found that 22 percent of the women with IBS also had PTSD compared to 11 percent of the women who didnt. Why Traumatic Events and PTSD Can Lead to IBS Its not clear why traumatic events and PTSD can lead to IBS, but its likely that chronic stress from a traumatic event or PTSD can harm your digestive system. In PTSD, your bodys fight or flight response is frequently activated, releasing a substance in the brain called corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF). Among other things, CRF increases mucus and water secretion in your colon and disrupts colon motility (speed of muscle contraction). Its likely, then, that high levels of CRF contribute to the development of IBS in people with PTSD. How the Fight or Flight Response Is a Natural Response to PTSD The Benefits of Treating Both PTSD and IBS If you have PTSD and IBS, the stress of having PTSD can make your IBS symptoms worseâ€"and vice versa. Fortunately, treating your PTSD may also improve your IBS. One of the most effective treatments for PTSD is exposure therapy  and other options are also available. If youre looking for a PTSD treatment provider, a number of websites can help you connect with providers in your area. The 9 Best Online Therapy Programs

Saturday, May 23, 2020

Attribution Theory Psychology of Interpreting Behavior

In psychology,  attribution is a judgment we make about the cause of another persons behavior. Attribution theory explains these attribution processes, which we use to understand why an event or behavior occurred. To understand the concept of attribution, imagine that a new friend cancels plans to meet up for coffee. Do you assume that something unavoidable came up, or that the friend is a flaky person? In other words, do you assume that the behavior was situational (related to external circumstances) or dispositional (related to inherent internal characteristics)? How you answer questions like these is the central focus for psychologists who study attribution. Key Takeaways: Attribution Theory Attribution theories attempt to explain how human beings evaluate and determine the cause of other peoples behavior.Well-known attribution theories include the correspondent inference theory, Kelleys covariation model, and Weiners three-dimensional model.Attribution theories typically focus on the process of determining whether a behavior is situationally-caused (caused by external factors) or dispositionally-caused (caused by internal characteristics). Common Sense Psychology Fritz Heider  put forward his theories of attribution in his 1958 book The Psychology of Interpersonal Relations. Heider was  interested in examining how individuals determine whether another persons behavior is internally caused or externally caused. According to Heider, behavior is a product of  capacity and motivation. Capacity refers to whether we are able to enact a particular behavior—that is, whether our innate characteristics and our present environment make that behavior possible. Motivation refers to our intentions as well as how much effort we apply. Heider contended that both capacity and motivation are necessary for a particular behavior to occur. For example, your ability to run a marathon depends on both your physical fitness and the weather that day (your capacity) as well as your desire and drive to push through the race (your motivation). Correspondent Inference Theory Edward Jones and Keith Davis developed the correspondent inference theory. This theory suggests that if someone behaves in a socially desirable way, we do not tend to infer much about them as a person. For example, if you ask your friend for a pencil and she gives one to you, you are not likely to infer much about your friends character from the behavior, because most people would do the same thing in a given situation—it is the socially desirable response. However, if your friend refuses to allow you to borrow a pencil, you are likely to infer something about her innate characteristics due to this socially undesirable response. Also according to this theory, we do not tend to conclude much about an individuals internal motivation if they’re acting in a particular  social role. For example, a salesperson might be friendly and outgoing at work, but because such a demeanor is part of the job requirements, we will not attribute the behavior to an innate characteristic. On the other hand, if an individual displays behavior that is atypical in a given social situation, we tend to be more likely to attribute their behavior to their innate disposition. For example, if we see someone behaving in a quiet, reserved manner at a loud and boisterous party, we’re more likely to conclude that this person is  introverted. Kelley’s Covariation Model According to psychologist Harold Kelley’s  covariation model, we tend to use three types of information when we’re deciding whether someone’s behavior was internally or externally motivated. Consensus, or whether others would act similarly in a given situation. If other people would typically display the same behavior, we tend to interpret the behavior as being less indicative of an individuals innate characteristics.Distinctiveness, or whether the person acts similarly across other situations. If a person only acts a certain way in one situation, the behavior can probably be attributed to the situation rather than the person.Consistency, or whether someone acts the same way in a given situation each time it occurs. If someone’s behavior in a given situation is inconsistent from one time to the next, their behavior becomes more difficult to attribute. When there are high levels of consensus, distinctiveness, and consistency, we tend to attribute the behavior to the situation. For example, lets imagine that youve never eaten cheese pizza before, and are trying to figure out why your friend Sally likes cheese pizza so much: All of your other friends also like pizza (high consensus)Sally doesnt like many other foods with cheese (high distinctiveness)Sally likes every pizza shes ever tried (high consistency) Taken together, this information suggests that Sallys behavior (liking pizza) is the result of a specific circumstance or situation (pizza tastes good and is a nearly universally enjoyed dish), rather than some inherent characteristic of Sallys. When there are low levels of consensus and distinctiveness, but high consistency, we’re more likely to decide the behavior is due to something about the person. For example, lets imagine that you’re trying to figure out why your friend Carly likes to go sky-diving: None of your other friends likes to go sky-diving (low consensus)Carly likes many other high-adrenaline activities (low distinctiveness)Carly has been sky-diving many times and shes always had a great time (high consistency) Taken together, this information suggests that Carlys behavior (her love of sky-diving) is the result of an inherent characteristic of Carlys (being a thrill-seeker), rather than a situational aspect of the act of sky-diving. Weiner’s Three-Dimensional Model Bernard Weiner’s model suggests that people examine three dimensions  when attempting to understand the causes of a behavior: locus, stability, and controllability. Locus  refers to whether the behavior was caused by internal or external factors.Stability  refers to whether the behavior will happen again in the future.Controllability  refers to whether someone is able to change the outcome of an event by expending more effort. According to Weiner, the attributions people make affect their emotions. For example, people are more likely to feel  pride  if they believe that they succeeded due to internal characteristics, such as innate talent, rather than external factors, such as luck. Research on a similar theory,  explanatory style, has found that an individuals explanatory style people is linked to their  health  and  levels of stress. Attribution Errors When we try to determine the cause of someone’s behavior, we are not always accurate. In fact, psychologists have identified two key errors that we commonly make when attempting to attribute behavior. Fundamental Attribution Error, which  refers to the tendency to over-emphasize the role of personal traits in shaping behaviors. For example, if someone is rude to you, you may assume that they’re generally a rude person, rather than assuming that they were under stress that day.Self-Serving Bias, which refers to the tendency to give ourselves credit (i.e. make an internal attribution when things go well, but blame the situation or bad luck (i.e. make an external attribution) when things go poorly. According to recent research, people who are experiencing depression may not show the  self-serving bias, and may even experience a reverse bias. Sources Boyes, Alice. â€Å"The Self-Serving Bias - Definition, Research, and Antidotes.†Ã‚  Psychology Today Blog  (2013, Jan 9).  https://www.psychologytoday.com/us/blog/in-practice/201301/the-self-serving-bias-definition-research-and-antidotesFiske, Susan T., and Shelley E. Taylor.  Social Cognition: From Brains to Culture. McGraw-Hill, 2008.  https://books.google.com/books?id7qPUDAAAQBAJdqfisketaylorsocialcognitionlrGilovich, Thomas, Dacher Keltner, and Richard E. Nisbett.  Social Psychology. 1st edition, W.W. Norton Company, 2006.Sherman, Mark. â€Å"Why We Dont Give Each Other a Break.†Ã‚  Psychology Today Blog  (2014, Jun 20).  https://www.psychologytoday.com/us/blog/real-men-dont-write-blogs/201406/why-we-dont-give-each-other-break

Tuesday, May 12, 2020

The Internet And Its Effects On The World Nation Itself

As we all known, now in days almost everything that we see and everything that we do is throughout an electronic devise. No matter what small little thing, almost everything that you do is from a computer. For instance, to communicate with a family member (cellphone), to send a via-text, to check your e-mails, to watch television, almost everything is throughout a devise. For this same reason, government has to make sure that these devises are protected from any predator that would do bad with those devises. One of the biggest things that they can do is leaving your bank account in zero. That would be a big NO for anyone. Knowing that cyberspace is composed of hundreds and thousands of interconnected computers, servers, routers, switches, and fiber optic cables and is the nervous system of critical infrastructures such as transportation, energy, telecommunication, public health, banking and finance. Any attempt to damage or do any kind of attacks to the cyberspace it can even threat the whole nation itself. It can create a major damage whereas the finance can be lost forever; making all citizens lose their money and any kind of savings that they were making throughout their whole life. Everything can be gone in an instant with a push of a button and probably no one would know who it was, and where it happen. But, what can the government do? What steps would they take? These are some questions that some people may asked themselves. Cyberspace response system consists ofShow MoreRelatedAnalysis of the Article on the Role of Information Communication Technologies in the Arab Spring1171 Words   |  5 Pagesthe Arab world. Although social media has rarely changed the overall living conditions of the inhabitants of those regions in the past years but what it has done in particular is to raise the overall connectivity of individuals and provided them much ease in transferring information. 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This in itself is limitations on our own freedom of speech caused by ourselves, regardless of the policies our Government holds. 2.2 Example of a country where freedom of speech has been limited and the ‘Chilling-Effect’ ‘Chilling-Effect’ is a law that surrounds many factors within constitutional life, but most importantly the right to Freedom of speech. The concept of the Chilling effect is that when a law is passed it causes ‘ripples’ within societyRead More Concentration of Ownership and Decreasing Diversity in Print Media1665 Words   |  7 PagesPrint Media       For all who love to read books, imagine walking into bookstore after bookstore seeing the same type of books over and over. No variety, no choice, only repetition. Although America prides itself on freedom and democracy more than any nation in the world, this hypothetical situation is becoming increasingly closer to becoming a reality than some may think. Consolidation and concentration of ownership in print media companies may cause for the inability of some peopleRead MoreEssay on Cyber Warfare909 Words   |  4 PagesChina Cyber Warfare Section 1.9: Cyber Warfare around the world Section 1.10: Cyber Warfare everyday What is Cyber Warfare? â€Å"Cyber warfare is a term used to describe the use of the Internet to wage war in the virtual world, often with real effects in the physical world,† (McGuigan). In the past recent years, cyber warfare has become a pertinent issue among the major nations on the planet; this issue has forced militaries, all over the world, to incorporate a new branch that is devoted to both conductingRead MoreEssay on The Effects Which a Natural Disaster can have on a Country1162 Words   |  5 Pages 1996, 124). While the term ‘natural hazard’ may merely refer to the event itself such as an earthquake or a flood, ‘natural disaster’ emphasizes human involvement, which is the impact of ‘natural hazard’. For instance, the eruption of a volcano in uninhabited areas is considered as a natural hazard rather than a natural disaster due to the lack of human involvement (Bankoff, 2004, 79). This essay will analyze the effects of natural disasters from the fol lowing three aspects. Firstly, natural disastersRead MoreBranches Of Government : The United States1578 Words   |  7 Pagesa challenge. In an environment that changes daily, technological legislation will no sooner be passed, and it is already obsolete. The rate of technological advancement and espionage present a real threat, not only to the United States, but to the world. How can law be generalized so as to affect a process relative to technology and software design that prevents transnational crime? A Collaboration between Three Branches The framers were well aware of centralized authority, which they found to be

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Disasters Do Not Cause Effects. The Effects Are What We Call a Disaster Free Essays

string(117) " is actually a whole series of after effects of any particular event that decide if that event is a disaster or not\." Humans are the most developed of all the living beings. They think and learn. It is in human nature to minimize the errors in anything and everything as much as possible and to try to reach as near to perfection as can be. We will write a custom essay sample on Disasters Do Not Cause Effects. The Effects Are What We Call a Disaster or any similar topic only for you Order Now However, humans are creatures of mistakes. No matter how small or how large, every individual makes many mistakes in their lives on personal, social, environmental, educational, professional or other levels. In this world, there is a set process and procedure for everything and for things to remain in a balance and keep functioning and working properly and appropriately, it is important that these processes and procedures keep going on in the normal usual way. When there is a disruption in these processes and procedures, disasters occur. These disasters may be on personal level, national level or global level. They may be social, political, economic, natural or of some other type. Technically, a disaster is any event, whether natural or caused by humans, that has a negative impact on the society or the world. The word â€Å"disaster† is derived from two Greek words â€Å"dis† meaning â€Å"bad† and â€Å"astro† meaning stars. It means that when the stars are in a bad state or are aligned in a wrong manner, bad things will happen. In a disaster, the victims suffer. People die or huge losses are incurred or both take place. When classified under broad categories, disasters can be divided in two types; natural disasters and disasters caused by humans. A natural disaster is any event that occurs naturally and humans have a very little or absolutely no control over it. Some examples include earthquakes, tsunamis, volcanic eruptions, floods, typhoons, cyclones, tornados, natural fires, etc. however, human vulnerability plays a great part for a natural hazard to turn into a natural disaster, that is, a natural hazard like an earthquake, fire, tsunami etc will not be considered a â€Å"disaster† if it occurs in such an area that is not occupied by humans or no human is affected by it or both. The greater the impact of the hazard on the human environment or the humans themselves, the greater is the disaster. In such a calamity, a good emergency management system (also known as a disaster management system) can help save lives and reduce the losses incurred, while a weak or unplanned emergency management system or the lack of one can result in huge financial, economic, social and human losses. It has however been observed that the developed nations tend to have considerably better emergency management systems and therefore incur less losses be it on the financial and economic front or the social and human front. Researches show that about 90 to 95 percent of the losses incurred due to these natural disasters every year are incurred by the underdeveloped or the developing nations especially the South East Asian countries. The second type of disasters is the disaster caused by humans. A human-made disaster is any disaster that is caused by the mistake or misunderstanding of processes by humans. The causes may be human negligence or ignorance, a mechanical failure or any other human action. Human made disasters are further divided into two types; technological disasters and sociological disasters. Technological disasters are all those disasters that are caused by a mechanical, engineering or technical failure and include disasters like a transportation disaster (like a plane crash) or a collapse of a building or bridge (due to engineering or technical faults etc) etc that causes loss of lives or resources or both. Sociological disasters are all those disasters that are backed by a powerful human motive (be it criminal acts, revenge, religious reasons, terrorism, wars etc. ). In recent times, terrorism and wars are the types of such disasters that are most prevalent and claim most of the lives of people dying these days. The powerful are trying to suppress and oppress the weak and in order to take over them and their resources, attack on them (a good example of that would be the on-going America-Iraq war), while on the other hand, the suppressed and oppressed try to defend themselves and raise their voice, which results in riots and similar incidences. Another type of the disasters can be a combination of both human-made and natural disasters. That would include any disasters that have both the human reasons as well as the natural hazards behind them. An example of such a disaster would be an aircraft crash due to sudden turbulence in weather. The natural factor here would be the bad weather while the human error would be the lack of a proper contingency plan. When defined broadly, a disaster is any event or occurrence that has a negative impact on at least one human being. Keeping this definition in mind, a disaster can be on many levels. The lowest level of a disaster would be on a personal level. This may include events like a divorce, loss or death of someone very close and beloved like parents or spouse, heavy losses in business etc that can have immense effects on an individual’s life, and in some cases, can even change the entire course or outlook of one’s life, and can revolutionize that individual’s mentality and thinking. A higher level would be on the organizational basis which might include failure of business projects or liquidation or bankruptcy etc. hen there might be some other levels like national, regional and global as well. According to Wolf Dombrowski, â€Å"Disasters do not cause effects. The effects are what we call a Disaster. † What he means to say is that it is not the disaster in itself in totality that is harmful for us; the humans, it is not just the very incident that has a negative impact on our lives and it is not just a particular event that causes a severe blow to the masses. It is actually a whole series of after effects of any particular event that decide if that event is a disaster or not. You read "Disasters Do Not Cause Effects. The Effects Are What We Call a Disaster" in category "Papers" This can easily be understood by the fact that if a hazard (a natural disaster in this example, like an earthquake) hits an uninhabited area, it will not be considered a disaster; the reason being that it did not have any â€Å"effect† on any human or human environment. On the other hand, had the same earthquake hit a largely populated urban area, it would have been the source of massive destruction and would have claimed several human lives. In addition to this, it would have caused huge financial and economic losses as well. All these negative impacts are the â€Å"effects† of the earthquake, which made it a disaster or else, it would have been just an earthquake in a distant uninhabited piece of land. Consider another example of the personal level of damage. What is wrong with a divorce? A divorce is nothing but a separation between spouses who no longer wish to live with one another. This should have been a good thing with positive impacts since the people who do not want to stay with each other can now live the way they want. However, this is not the case. Not at least most of the times. The reason being that a divorce always, or most of the times, has many negative â€Å"effects† on the separated spouses, their children and other closely related individuals like parents of the two spouses, and thus the whole family suffers. Therefore, a divorce was not bad in its essence and could not have been classified as a disaster on a personal level, but, due to its â€Å"effects† it turned into a disaster. The examples described above and many other examples make it pretty clear that the disaster and its effects are very closely linked and there is such a thin boundary between then that it is almost impossible to clearly differentiate between them. The disaster is due to its effects and the effects are due to the disaster. So it shows that there is no clear distinction between a disaster and its effects and that they are nothing but two faces of the same coin and it is the effects that we actually call a disaster. One thing that with the disasters be it natural or human, which renders the humans helpless in this regard, is the very low predictability of these disasters. Moreover, the disasters are not under much of human control, even if they are human made disasters. Due to this fact, the losses incurred are greater and more lives are wasted. The availability and functionality of a proper emergency management system can, however, help minimize the damage, if not eliminate it. When talking about emergency management, which is also called disaster management, there is a step to step process that is involved. There are four phases to establish an emergency management system, being, mitigation, preparedness, response, and recovery. Discussing briefly, mitigation is the long-term planning to prevent a hazard from turning into a disaster or to reduce the impact on the masses as much as possible. The elimination or reduction of potential risks is also included in mitigation. Mitigation may either be structural (technological solutions etc) or non-structural (like insurance etc). Contingency planning is a major part of the mitigation phase of emergency management. The second phase, preparedness, deals with the strategies to prepare the masses in case of a hazardous situation to minimize the disaster. It includes strategies like first-aid training and inventory management and stock piling, etc. Casualty prediction (prediction of deaths that should be expected from the catastrophe) is another important aspect of preparedness phase. Coming to response, the third phase of emergency management, this phase explains how one should respond or react to the calamity on hand in the first place. It requires emergency services, NGOs and other voluntary organizations, rescue teams and other relevant departments to have a complete plan of how to respond to a particular disaster, but the volunteers should be really committed to help in times of disasters or else they can prove to be a hindrance instead of help. The last phase of disaster management (or emergency management) is the recovery phase that actually takes place after the disaster when the effects have spread and its time to try bringing things back to normal as soon as possible. While response phase helps to deal with the impacts of the disaster during the disaster, the recovery phase deals with facing the aftermath and restoring the affected area or people to the previous state (that is the state before the disaster). It includes efforts like rebuilding of the destroyed property and estate, reemployment of the affected masses and the rehabilitation of those who are psychologically struck by the incident, etc. The International Organizations that respond in emergency situations include United Nations, World Bank, Red Cross, Red Crescent, International Association of Emergency Managers, etc. Let us now take some examples and discuss the notion â€Å"Disasters do not cause effects. The effects are what we call a Disaster† further, in the light of those devastating events. The events that the discussion would be focused on would be: a) Indian Ocean Tsunami – 2004 b) The 9/11 incident of The World Trade Centers – 2001 South East Asia, especially the coastal areas, is the part of the world which is gifted by nature’s great bounties. Hundreds of thousands of tourists, especially from Australian and European nations, travel to this region every year to spend their vacations in the beautiful days and the peaceful nights of these God-gifted lands and these tourist activities contribute a major chunk to the revenue generated by these underdeveloped or developing countries, annually. December 26, 2004 was a nice sunny day of the beautiful winters of this South East Asian region. The sea shores were crowded with both, he locals and the tourists and everyone was enjoying the amazing winter off the coast when suddenly, there appeared a wall of water right at the shore. Within seconds, the huge wall-like wave of water crashed on the shore engulfing numerous people who were peacefully having fun in the sun not very long ago. The fun and peaceful environment turned into a sight of immense chaos and destruction and the gigantic waves did not take longer than a few minutes to travel up to kilometers inside the cities. A tsunami had hit the shores of the Indian Ocean. Let us first shed some light on what a Tsunami actually is. The word tsunami is derived from two Japanese words; â€Å"tsu† meaning â€Å"harbor† and â€Å"nami† meaning â€Å"waves†. A Tsunami can be described as an immediate immense after effect of an earthquake or mass movements in the land under the ocean. When an earthquake or mass movements occur in the ocean bed, due to any reason (being a volcanic eruption, underwater explosions, landslides or underwater earthquakes themselves), they generate huge amounts of energy that causes the water waves to move at large mean and extreme positions and thus create gigantic waves that appear to be walls of water when the strike the shore before the crash down on land and engulf everything that there is. The height or the amplitude of the waves of a Tsunami off the shore is much smaller than what it suddenly becomes the instant it strikes the shore. This is because while the water under the surface of the ocean is full of energy emitted by the earthquake or mass movements in the ocean bed and continues to undergo very fast movements, the water of the surface is comparatively very calm. The moment the water reaches the shore, these two layers merge and give rise to the gigantic waves of water capable of engulfing the whole area in a matter of mere minutes and thus create the walls of water, a characteristic the Tsunamis are famous for. In the Tsunami that occurred in the Indian Ocean in 2004, the cause was determined to be an earthquake, with its epicenter (point of generation) off the west coast of the Sumatra Island of Indonesia. That is why Indonesia was the country to suffer from this calamity the most. The magnitude of the earthquake was recorded to be between 9. 1 and 9. 3 by different sources on the Richter scale or a Seismograph. The earthquake was so powerful that it generated a series of tsunami waves that hit various shores along the Indian Ocean and created many powerful gigantic waves that caused a lot of destruction. The Tsunami affected about eleven countries and created waves up to a hundred feet in height. The earthquake was of the second highest magnitude to be recorded on a seismograph, ever, and the tsunami was recorded to be one of the deadliest natural disasters in history claiming lives of more that 350,000 individuals and causing losses of billions of dollars. The countries most affected include Indonesia, Sri Lanka, India, Thailand, the Maldives, Somalia, Myanmar, Malaysia, Seychelles, etc. n addition to this, many citizens of various Australian and European nations lost their lives while spending their vacations on the shores where the disaster struck. The disaster did not end here. The actual problems started after the major outbreak when the rescue mission started. Many were saved yet many lost their lives. Many were left missing who would have died eventually hoping and praying, waiting for a rescue team to come and save them. The areas where the calamity hit were totally destroyed and needed to be rebuilt. As the days passed, the temperature dropped further. This caused more casualties due to the chilling effect of winters. There was an outburst of many epidemics and other diseases while the health resources were minimal and the hygiene conditions were adverse. Food, clothing, shelter, water, medicines and other health supplies and other basic necessities of life were needed immediately in huge quantities. Many were injured and needed medical facilities to be treated quickly in order to prevent more casualties while those who remained safe were now reaching adverse conditions due to lack of resources. These and many other immediate after effects needed to be looked after as early as possible to prevent further losses. This clearly shows that the disaster was not â€Å"just† the Tsunami waves but the effects that it left on the areas that it hit, were equally disastrous. Another event that can easily be deemed disastrous is the 9/11 incident that took place in 2001. It was a peaceful morning, a regular American day in New York. Many people had already reached their workplaces while others were in a hurry to reach theirs when a plane smashed straight into one of the two tallest towers of the World Trade Center, New York. Not much time had passed when another plane crashed in the second tower. Fire broke out in the two towers and a state of emergency was created. In the mean while, an attack on the Pentagon took place as well. It was a series of attacks by Al-Qaeda (a terrorist organization) on America in which they used passenger airplanes as their weapons. The whole world’s attention was diverted towards America, the Super Power in the world, since no body could imagine something like this happening there. No matter what the motives and the caused were, thousands of innocent people lost their lives and it took months for even a country like America to overcome the immediate devastating effects of this incident. However, this incident, in the long run, changed the complete outlook of the world. America started a war against terrorism which resulted in attacks on Afghanistan, Iraq, Lebanon, etc, some of which are still going on. Various treaties and agreements took place between various nations and many alliances were formed. Many Strategies were formulated and the concept of Emergency Management, Crisis Management and other similar concepts changed altogether, which is very evident from the comparison of the books published before and after the disaster. All in all, this incident had a huge impact on almost the entire world and it’s after effects were, and still are, actually greater and more devastating than what it was that day. This example too, clearly shows that the disaster was not just what happened that particular day, but also what happened after it and what is still happening, especially in the regions that were and/or are the subject of the war against terrorism. Thus the statement of Wolf Dombrowski, that â€Å"Disasters do not cause effects. The effects are what we call a Disaster† holds true How to cite Disasters Do Not Cause Effects. The Effects Are What We Call a Disaster, Papers

Saturday, May 2, 2020

Discussion about Housing Influences on Housing Choice

Question: Discuss about housing Influences on housing choice? Answer: The article "House as a Symbol of Self" by Cooper (1974) explores the Jungian psychology theory for examining people's perspectives and relationships to their homes. In her opinion, every house has two components- the interior and its facade. These two elements reflect the individual's psyche and how the individual wishes to present his symbol to the outside world. The author has shown a definite relationship between inner psychological self and house interiors. I agree with Cooper's article as she considers various housing perspectives such as a free-standing house, high-rise apartments and fortress as a symbol of self. It examines home as an archetypal experience as the expressions are through a language of symbols. The symbolic interpretation of home is presented as separate, private, unique and protected. Cooper states that 70 percent of the people in England, Australia and the United States have single-family houses. It may be argued that the psychic desires in people have a social and cultural pattern over housing. With an increase in income and socio-economic status of an individual, the house becomes a symbol of expressing self (Gieseking, 2013). Conclusively, the article made me think about housing from a differing perspective of sustainability in the attitudes. The houses can be referred as a symbol of stereotyped as people live in houses where they can reflect their socioeconomic status. I agree with Cooper's thinking of threat to self-image and unique personality. I feel that there is a lack of generalizability as the article stresses on sociology, psychology and design because of its readable style (Gieseking, 2013). References Cooper, C. (1974).The house as symbol of self. Stroudsberg, Pa.: Dowden, Hutchinson Ross. Gieseking, J. (2013).People, Place, and Space: A Reader. People, Place, and Space: A Reader: Routledge. Southworth, M., Cranz, G., Lindsay, G., Morhayim, L. (2012). People in the Design of Urban Places.Journal Of Urban Design,17(4), 461-465. https://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13574809.2012.720757