Saturday, May 23, 2020

Attribution Theory Psychology of Interpreting Behavior

In psychology,  attribution is a judgment we make about the cause of another persons behavior. Attribution theory explains these attribution processes, which we use to understand why an event or behavior occurred. To understand the concept of attribution, imagine that a new friend cancels plans to meet up for coffee. Do you assume that something unavoidable came up, or that the friend is a flaky person? In other words, do you assume that the behavior was situational (related to external circumstances) or dispositional (related to inherent internal characteristics)? How you answer questions like these is the central focus for psychologists who study attribution. Key Takeaways: Attribution Theory Attribution theories attempt to explain how human beings evaluate and determine the cause of other peoples behavior.Well-known attribution theories include the correspondent inference theory, Kelleys covariation model, and Weiners three-dimensional model.Attribution theories typically focus on the process of determining whether a behavior is situationally-caused (caused by external factors) or dispositionally-caused (caused by internal characteristics). Common Sense Psychology Fritz Heider  put forward his theories of attribution in his 1958 book The Psychology of Interpersonal Relations. Heider was  interested in examining how individuals determine whether another persons behavior is internally caused or externally caused. According to Heider, behavior is a product of  capacity and motivation. Capacity refers to whether we are able to enact a particular behavior—that is, whether our innate characteristics and our present environment make that behavior possible. Motivation refers to our intentions as well as how much effort we apply. Heider contended that both capacity and motivation are necessary for a particular behavior to occur. For example, your ability to run a marathon depends on both your physical fitness and the weather that day (your capacity) as well as your desire and drive to push through the race (your motivation). Correspondent Inference Theory Edward Jones and Keith Davis developed the correspondent inference theory. This theory suggests that if someone behaves in a socially desirable way, we do not tend to infer much about them as a person. For example, if you ask your friend for a pencil and she gives one to you, you are not likely to infer much about your friends character from the behavior, because most people would do the same thing in a given situation—it is the socially desirable response. However, if your friend refuses to allow you to borrow a pencil, you are likely to infer something about her innate characteristics due to this socially undesirable response. Also according to this theory, we do not tend to conclude much about an individuals internal motivation if they’re acting in a particular  social role. For example, a salesperson might be friendly and outgoing at work, but because such a demeanor is part of the job requirements, we will not attribute the behavior to an innate characteristic. On the other hand, if an individual displays behavior that is atypical in a given social situation, we tend to be more likely to attribute their behavior to their innate disposition. For example, if we see someone behaving in a quiet, reserved manner at a loud and boisterous party, we’re more likely to conclude that this person is  introverted. Kelley’s Covariation Model According to psychologist Harold Kelley’s  covariation model, we tend to use three types of information when we’re deciding whether someone’s behavior was internally or externally motivated. Consensus, or whether others would act similarly in a given situation. If other people would typically display the same behavior, we tend to interpret the behavior as being less indicative of an individuals innate characteristics.Distinctiveness, or whether the person acts similarly across other situations. If a person only acts a certain way in one situation, the behavior can probably be attributed to the situation rather than the person.Consistency, or whether someone acts the same way in a given situation each time it occurs. If someone’s behavior in a given situation is inconsistent from one time to the next, their behavior becomes more difficult to attribute. When there are high levels of consensus, distinctiveness, and consistency, we tend to attribute the behavior to the situation. For example, lets imagine that youve never eaten cheese pizza before, and are trying to figure out why your friend Sally likes cheese pizza so much: All of your other friends also like pizza (high consensus)Sally doesnt like many other foods with cheese (high distinctiveness)Sally likes every pizza shes ever tried (high consistency) Taken together, this information suggests that Sallys behavior (liking pizza) is the result of a specific circumstance or situation (pizza tastes good and is a nearly universally enjoyed dish), rather than some inherent characteristic of Sallys. When there are low levels of consensus and distinctiveness, but high consistency, we’re more likely to decide the behavior is due to something about the person. For example, lets imagine that you’re trying to figure out why your friend Carly likes to go sky-diving: None of your other friends likes to go sky-diving (low consensus)Carly likes many other high-adrenaline activities (low distinctiveness)Carly has been sky-diving many times and shes always had a great time (high consistency) Taken together, this information suggests that Carlys behavior (her love of sky-diving) is the result of an inherent characteristic of Carlys (being a thrill-seeker), rather than a situational aspect of the act of sky-diving. Weiner’s Three-Dimensional Model Bernard Weiner’s model suggests that people examine three dimensions  when attempting to understand the causes of a behavior: locus, stability, and controllability. Locus  refers to whether the behavior was caused by internal or external factors.Stability  refers to whether the behavior will happen again in the future.Controllability  refers to whether someone is able to change the outcome of an event by expending more effort. According to Weiner, the attributions people make affect their emotions. For example, people are more likely to feel  pride  if they believe that they succeeded due to internal characteristics, such as innate talent, rather than external factors, such as luck. Research on a similar theory,  explanatory style, has found that an individuals explanatory style people is linked to their  health  and  levels of stress. Attribution Errors When we try to determine the cause of someone’s behavior, we are not always accurate. In fact, psychologists have identified two key errors that we commonly make when attempting to attribute behavior. Fundamental Attribution Error, which  refers to the tendency to over-emphasize the role of personal traits in shaping behaviors. For example, if someone is rude to you, you may assume that they’re generally a rude person, rather than assuming that they were under stress that day.Self-Serving Bias, which refers to the tendency to give ourselves credit (i.e. make an internal attribution when things go well, but blame the situation or bad luck (i.e. make an external attribution) when things go poorly. According to recent research, people who are experiencing depression may not show the  self-serving bias, and may even experience a reverse bias. Sources Boyes, Alice. â€Å"The Self-Serving Bias - Definition, Research, and Antidotes.†Ã‚  Psychology Today Blog  (2013, Jan 9).  https://www.psychologytoday.com/us/blog/in-practice/201301/the-self-serving-bias-definition-research-and-antidotesFiske, Susan T., and Shelley E. Taylor.  Social Cognition: From Brains to Culture. McGraw-Hill, 2008.  https://books.google.com/books?id7qPUDAAAQBAJdqfisketaylorsocialcognitionlrGilovich, Thomas, Dacher Keltner, and Richard E. Nisbett.  Social Psychology. 1st edition, W.W. Norton Company, 2006.Sherman, Mark. â€Å"Why We Dont Give Each Other a Break.†Ã‚  Psychology Today Blog  (2014, Jun 20).  https://www.psychologytoday.com/us/blog/real-men-dont-write-blogs/201406/why-we-dont-give-each-other-break

Tuesday, May 12, 2020

The Internet And Its Effects On The World Nation Itself

As we all known, now in days almost everything that we see and everything that we do is throughout an electronic devise. No matter what small little thing, almost everything that you do is from a computer. For instance, to communicate with a family member (cellphone), to send a via-text, to check your e-mails, to watch television, almost everything is throughout a devise. For this same reason, government has to make sure that these devises are protected from any predator that would do bad with those devises. One of the biggest things that they can do is leaving your bank account in zero. That would be a big NO for anyone. Knowing that cyberspace is composed of hundreds and thousands of interconnected computers, servers, routers, switches, and fiber optic cables and is the nervous system of critical infrastructures such as transportation, energy, telecommunication, public health, banking and finance. Any attempt to damage or do any kind of attacks to the cyberspace it can even threat the whole nation itself. It can create a major damage whereas the finance can be lost forever; making all citizens lose their money and any kind of savings that they were making throughout their whole life. Everything can be gone in an instant with a push of a button and probably no one would know who it was, and where it happen. But, what can the government do? What steps would they take? These are some questions that some people may asked themselves. Cyberspace response system consists ofShow MoreRelatedAnalysis of the Article on the Role of Information Communication Technologies in the Arab Spring1171 Words   |  5 Pagesthe Arab world. Although social media has rarely changed the overall living conditions of the inhabitants of those regions in the past years but what it has done in particular is to raise the overall connectivity of individuals and provided them much ease in transferring information. 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Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Disasters Do Not Cause Effects. The Effects Are What We Call a Disaster Free Essays

string(117) " is actually a whole series of after effects of any particular event that decide if that event is a disaster or not\." Humans are the most developed of all the living beings. They think and learn. It is in human nature to minimize the errors in anything and everything as much as possible and to try to reach as near to perfection as can be. We will write a custom essay sample on Disasters Do Not Cause Effects. The Effects Are What We Call a Disaster or any similar topic only for you Order Now However, humans are creatures of mistakes. No matter how small or how large, every individual makes many mistakes in their lives on personal, social, environmental, educational, professional or other levels. In this world, there is a set process and procedure for everything and for things to remain in a balance and keep functioning and working properly and appropriately, it is important that these processes and procedures keep going on in the normal usual way. When there is a disruption in these processes and procedures, disasters occur. These disasters may be on personal level, national level or global level. They may be social, political, economic, natural or of some other type. Technically, a disaster is any event, whether natural or caused by humans, that has a negative impact on the society or the world. The word â€Å"disaster† is derived from two Greek words â€Å"dis† meaning â€Å"bad† and â€Å"astro† meaning stars. It means that when the stars are in a bad state or are aligned in a wrong manner, bad things will happen. In a disaster, the victims suffer. People die or huge losses are incurred or both take place. When classified under broad categories, disasters can be divided in two types; natural disasters and disasters caused by humans. A natural disaster is any event that occurs naturally and humans have a very little or absolutely no control over it. Some examples include earthquakes, tsunamis, volcanic eruptions, floods, typhoons, cyclones, tornados, natural fires, etc. however, human vulnerability plays a great part for a natural hazard to turn into a natural disaster, that is, a natural hazard like an earthquake, fire, tsunami etc will not be considered a â€Å"disaster† if it occurs in such an area that is not occupied by humans or no human is affected by it or both. The greater the impact of the hazard on the human environment or the humans themselves, the greater is the disaster. In such a calamity, a good emergency management system (also known as a disaster management system) can help save lives and reduce the losses incurred, while a weak or unplanned emergency management system or the lack of one can result in huge financial, economic, social and human losses. It has however been observed that the developed nations tend to have considerably better emergency management systems and therefore incur less losses be it on the financial and economic front or the social and human front. Researches show that about 90 to 95 percent of the losses incurred due to these natural disasters every year are incurred by the underdeveloped or the developing nations especially the South East Asian countries. The second type of disasters is the disaster caused by humans. A human-made disaster is any disaster that is caused by the mistake or misunderstanding of processes by humans. The causes may be human negligence or ignorance, a mechanical failure or any other human action. Human made disasters are further divided into two types; technological disasters and sociological disasters. Technological disasters are all those disasters that are caused by a mechanical, engineering or technical failure and include disasters like a transportation disaster (like a plane crash) or a collapse of a building or bridge (due to engineering or technical faults etc) etc that causes loss of lives or resources or both. Sociological disasters are all those disasters that are backed by a powerful human motive (be it criminal acts, revenge, religious reasons, terrorism, wars etc. ). In recent times, terrorism and wars are the types of such disasters that are most prevalent and claim most of the lives of people dying these days. The powerful are trying to suppress and oppress the weak and in order to take over them and their resources, attack on them (a good example of that would be the on-going America-Iraq war), while on the other hand, the suppressed and oppressed try to defend themselves and raise their voice, which results in riots and similar incidences. Another type of the disasters can be a combination of both human-made and natural disasters. That would include any disasters that have both the human reasons as well as the natural hazards behind them. An example of such a disaster would be an aircraft crash due to sudden turbulence in weather. The natural factor here would be the bad weather while the human error would be the lack of a proper contingency plan. When defined broadly, a disaster is any event or occurrence that has a negative impact on at least one human being. Keeping this definition in mind, a disaster can be on many levels. The lowest level of a disaster would be on a personal level. This may include events like a divorce, loss or death of someone very close and beloved like parents or spouse, heavy losses in business etc that can have immense effects on an individual’s life, and in some cases, can even change the entire course or outlook of one’s life, and can revolutionize that individual’s mentality and thinking. A higher level would be on the organizational basis which might include failure of business projects or liquidation or bankruptcy etc. hen there might be some other levels like national, regional and global as well. According to Wolf Dombrowski, â€Å"Disasters do not cause effects. The effects are what we call a Disaster. † What he means to say is that it is not the disaster in itself in totality that is harmful for us; the humans, it is not just the very incident that has a negative impact on our lives and it is not just a particular event that causes a severe blow to the masses. It is actually a whole series of after effects of any particular event that decide if that event is a disaster or not. You read "Disasters Do Not Cause Effects. The Effects Are What We Call a Disaster" in category "Papers" This can easily be understood by the fact that if a hazard (a natural disaster in this example, like an earthquake) hits an uninhabited area, it will not be considered a disaster; the reason being that it did not have any â€Å"effect† on any human or human environment. On the other hand, had the same earthquake hit a largely populated urban area, it would have been the source of massive destruction and would have claimed several human lives. In addition to this, it would have caused huge financial and economic losses as well. All these negative impacts are the â€Å"effects† of the earthquake, which made it a disaster or else, it would have been just an earthquake in a distant uninhabited piece of land. Consider another example of the personal level of damage. What is wrong with a divorce? A divorce is nothing but a separation between spouses who no longer wish to live with one another. This should have been a good thing with positive impacts since the people who do not want to stay with each other can now live the way they want. However, this is not the case. Not at least most of the times. The reason being that a divorce always, or most of the times, has many negative â€Å"effects† on the separated spouses, their children and other closely related individuals like parents of the two spouses, and thus the whole family suffers. Therefore, a divorce was not bad in its essence and could not have been classified as a disaster on a personal level, but, due to its â€Å"effects† it turned into a disaster. The examples described above and many other examples make it pretty clear that the disaster and its effects are very closely linked and there is such a thin boundary between then that it is almost impossible to clearly differentiate between them. The disaster is due to its effects and the effects are due to the disaster. So it shows that there is no clear distinction between a disaster and its effects and that they are nothing but two faces of the same coin and it is the effects that we actually call a disaster. One thing that with the disasters be it natural or human, which renders the humans helpless in this regard, is the very low predictability of these disasters. Moreover, the disasters are not under much of human control, even if they are human made disasters. Due to this fact, the losses incurred are greater and more lives are wasted. The availability and functionality of a proper emergency management system can, however, help minimize the damage, if not eliminate it. When talking about emergency management, which is also called disaster management, there is a step to step process that is involved. There are four phases to establish an emergency management system, being, mitigation, preparedness, response, and recovery. Discussing briefly, mitigation is the long-term planning to prevent a hazard from turning into a disaster or to reduce the impact on the masses as much as possible. The elimination or reduction of potential risks is also included in mitigation. Mitigation may either be structural (technological solutions etc) or non-structural (like insurance etc). Contingency planning is a major part of the mitigation phase of emergency management. The second phase, preparedness, deals with the strategies to prepare the masses in case of a hazardous situation to minimize the disaster. It includes strategies like first-aid training and inventory management and stock piling, etc. Casualty prediction (prediction of deaths that should be expected from the catastrophe) is another important aspect of preparedness phase. Coming to response, the third phase of emergency management, this phase explains how one should respond or react to the calamity on hand in the first place. It requires emergency services, NGOs and other voluntary organizations, rescue teams and other relevant departments to have a complete plan of how to respond to a particular disaster, but the volunteers should be really committed to help in times of disasters or else they can prove to be a hindrance instead of help. The last phase of disaster management (or emergency management) is the recovery phase that actually takes place after the disaster when the effects have spread and its time to try bringing things back to normal as soon as possible. While response phase helps to deal with the impacts of the disaster during the disaster, the recovery phase deals with facing the aftermath and restoring the affected area or people to the previous state (that is the state before the disaster). It includes efforts like rebuilding of the destroyed property and estate, reemployment of the affected masses and the rehabilitation of those who are psychologically struck by the incident, etc. The International Organizations that respond in emergency situations include United Nations, World Bank, Red Cross, Red Crescent, International Association of Emergency Managers, etc. Let us now take some examples and discuss the notion â€Å"Disasters do not cause effects. The effects are what we call a Disaster† further, in the light of those devastating events. The events that the discussion would be focused on would be: a) Indian Ocean Tsunami – 2004 b) The 9/11 incident of The World Trade Centers – 2001 South East Asia, especially the coastal areas, is the part of the world which is gifted by nature’s great bounties. Hundreds of thousands of tourists, especially from Australian and European nations, travel to this region every year to spend their vacations in the beautiful days and the peaceful nights of these God-gifted lands and these tourist activities contribute a major chunk to the revenue generated by these underdeveloped or developing countries, annually. December 26, 2004 was a nice sunny day of the beautiful winters of this South East Asian region. The sea shores were crowded with both, he locals and the tourists and everyone was enjoying the amazing winter off the coast when suddenly, there appeared a wall of water right at the shore. Within seconds, the huge wall-like wave of water crashed on the shore engulfing numerous people who were peacefully having fun in the sun not very long ago. The fun and peaceful environment turned into a sight of immense chaos and destruction and the gigantic waves did not take longer than a few minutes to travel up to kilometers inside the cities. A tsunami had hit the shores of the Indian Ocean. Let us first shed some light on what a Tsunami actually is. The word tsunami is derived from two Japanese words; â€Å"tsu† meaning â€Å"harbor† and â€Å"nami† meaning â€Å"waves†. A Tsunami can be described as an immediate immense after effect of an earthquake or mass movements in the land under the ocean. When an earthquake or mass movements occur in the ocean bed, due to any reason (being a volcanic eruption, underwater explosions, landslides or underwater earthquakes themselves), they generate huge amounts of energy that causes the water waves to move at large mean and extreme positions and thus create gigantic waves that appear to be walls of water when the strike the shore before the crash down on land and engulf everything that there is. The height or the amplitude of the waves of a Tsunami off the shore is much smaller than what it suddenly becomes the instant it strikes the shore. This is because while the water under the surface of the ocean is full of energy emitted by the earthquake or mass movements in the ocean bed and continues to undergo very fast movements, the water of the surface is comparatively very calm. The moment the water reaches the shore, these two layers merge and give rise to the gigantic waves of water capable of engulfing the whole area in a matter of mere minutes and thus create the walls of water, a characteristic the Tsunamis are famous for. In the Tsunami that occurred in the Indian Ocean in 2004, the cause was determined to be an earthquake, with its epicenter (point of generation) off the west coast of the Sumatra Island of Indonesia. That is why Indonesia was the country to suffer from this calamity the most. The magnitude of the earthquake was recorded to be between 9. 1 and 9. 3 by different sources on the Richter scale or a Seismograph. The earthquake was so powerful that it generated a series of tsunami waves that hit various shores along the Indian Ocean and created many powerful gigantic waves that caused a lot of destruction. The Tsunami affected about eleven countries and created waves up to a hundred feet in height. The earthquake was of the second highest magnitude to be recorded on a seismograph, ever, and the tsunami was recorded to be one of the deadliest natural disasters in history claiming lives of more that 350,000 individuals and causing losses of billions of dollars. The countries most affected include Indonesia, Sri Lanka, India, Thailand, the Maldives, Somalia, Myanmar, Malaysia, Seychelles, etc. n addition to this, many citizens of various Australian and European nations lost their lives while spending their vacations on the shores where the disaster struck. The disaster did not end here. The actual problems started after the major outbreak when the rescue mission started. Many were saved yet many lost their lives. Many were left missing who would have died eventually hoping and praying, waiting for a rescue team to come and save them. The areas where the calamity hit were totally destroyed and needed to be rebuilt. As the days passed, the temperature dropped further. This caused more casualties due to the chilling effect of winters. There was an outburst of many epidemics and other diseases while the health resources were minimal and the hygiene conditions were adverse. Food, clothing, shelter, water, medicines and other health supplies and other basic necessities of life were needed immediately in huge quantities. Many were injured and needed medical facilities to be treated quickly in order to prevent more casualties while those who remained safe were now reaching adverse conditions due to lack of resources. These and many other immediate after effects needed to be looked after as early as possible to prevent further losses. This clearly shows that the disaster was not â€Å"just† the Tsunami waves but the effects that it left on the areas that it hit, were equally disastrous. Another event that can easily be deemed disastrous is the 9/11 incident that took place in 2001. It was a peaceful morning, a regular American day in New York. Many people had already reached their workplaces while others were in a hurry to reach theirs when a plane smashed straight into one of the two tallest towers of the World Trade Center, New York. Not much time had passed when another plane crashed in the second tower. Fire broke out in the two towers and a state of emergency was created. In the mean while, an attack on the Pentagon took place as well. It was a series of attacks by Al-Qaeda (a terrorist organization) on America in which they used passenger airplanes as their weapons. The whole world’s attention was diverted towards America, the Super Power in the world, since no body could imagine something like this happening there. No matter what the motives and the caused were, thousands of innocent people lost their lives and it took months for even a country like America to overcome the immediate devastating effects of this incident. However, this incident, in the long run, changed the complete outlook of the world. America started a war against terrorism which resulted in attacks on Afghanistan, Iraq, Lebanon, etc, some of which are still going on. Various treaties and agreements took place between various nations and many alliances were formed. Many Strategies were formulated and the concept of Emergency Management, Crisis Management and other similar concepts changed altogether, which is very evident from the comparison of the books published before and after the disaster. All in all, this incident had a huge impact on almost the entire world and it’s after effects were, and still are, actually greater and more devastating than what it was that day. This example too, clearly shows that the disaster was not just what happened that particular day, but also what happened after it and what is still happening, especially in the regions that were and/or are the subject of the war against terrorism. Thus the statement of Wolf Dombrowski, that â€Å"Disasters do not cause effects. The effects are what we call a Disaster† holds true How to cite Disasters Do Not Cause Effects. The Effects Are What We Call a Disaster, Papers

Saturday, May 2, 2020

Discussion about Housing Influences on Housing Choice

Question: Discuss about housing Influences on housing choice? Answer: The article "House as a Symbol of Self" by Cooper (1974) explores the Jungian psychology theory for examining people's perspectives and relationships to their homes. In her opinion, every house has two components- the interior and its facade. These two elements reflect the individual's psyche and how the individual wishes to present his symbol to the outside world. The author has shown a definite relationship between inner psychological self and house interiors. I agree with Cooper's article as she considers various housing perspectives such as a free-standing house, high-rise apartments and fortress as a symbol of self. It examines home as an archetypal experience as the expressions are through a language of symbols. The symbolic interpretation of home is presented as separate, private, unique and protected. Cooper states that 70 percent of the people in England, Australia and the United States have single-family houses. It may be argued that the psychic desires in people have a social and cultural pattern over housing. With an increase in income and socio-economic status of an individual, the house becomes a symbol of expressing self (Gieseking, 2013). Conclusively, the article made me think about housing from a differing perspective of sustainability in the attitudes. The houses can be referred as a symbol of stereotyped as people live in houses where they can reflect their socioeconomic status. I agree with Cooper's thinking of threat to self-image and unique personality. I feel that there is a lack of generalizability as the article stresses on sociology, psychology and design because of its readable style (Gieseking, 2013). References Cooper, C. (1974).The house as symbol of self. Stroudsberg, Pa.: Dowden, Hutchinson Ross. Gieseking, J. (2013).People, Place, and Space: A Reader. People, Place, and Space: A Reader: Routledge. Southworth, M., Cranz, G., Lindsay, G., Morhayim, L. (2012). People in the Design of Urban Places.Journal Of Urban Design,17(4), 461-465. https://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13574809.2012.720757

Monday, March 23, 2020

Elements of a State and Philippine Constitution Essay Essay Example

Elements of a State and Philippine Constitution Essay Essay State A community of individuals more or less legion. for good busying a definite part of district. independent of external control. and possessing an organized authorities to which the great organic structure of its dwellers render accustomed obeisance ( De Leon. 2000 ) . The Philippines is a province.Elementss of a State We will write a custom essay sample on Elements of a State and Philippine Constitution Essay specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Elements of a State and Philippine Constitution Essay specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Elements of a State and Philippine Constitution Essay specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer The first component of a province is the people. which is known to be the most indispensable and indispensable component of a province. This is the mass of the population. or the figure of people populating within the province. There is no specific figure of people required life within a province so that it could be called a province. The 2nd component is the district. which is the constituted country that justly belongs to the people of the province. This is the aerial ( air ) . tellurian ( land ) . fluvial ( stream/river ) . and maritime ( H2O ) domains of the province. The 3rd component is the authorities. which is the bureau to which the will of the province is expressed. created and administered. This is a group of people or establishments which run and rule the society. The 4th component is the sovereignty. which is known as the supreme power of the province to command and implement obeisance its will from the people. District Harmonizing to Article One. National Territory. of The 1987 Constitution of the Republic of the Philippines: â€Å"The national district comprises the Philippine archipelago. with all the islands and Waterss embraced therein. and all other districts over which the Philippines has sovereignty or legal power. consisting of its terrestrial. fluvial and aerial spheres. including its territorial sea. the ocean floor. the undersoil. the insular shelves. and other pigboat countries. The Waterss around. between. and linking the islands of the archipelago. regardless of their comprehensiveness and dimensions. organize portion of the internal Waterss of the Philippines. † This means that all the country that is encompassed by 185 kilometres ( 100 maritime stat mis ) from the Philippine shore. under the seabed even. is a district of the Philippines. This is sometimes besides known as the â€Å"Philippine Area of Responsibility† . a term used by PAG-ASA and other conditions bureaus to find for illustration. if a typhoon or a Low Pressure Area has entered our district. Fundamental law of the Philippines The fundamental law of the Philippines is the most of import portion of a province. The national district and all the cardinal laws- the set of regulations and principles- can be found here. The Constitution besides enunciates province rules and policies. Among the rules and policies embodied in the Fundamental law are: ( 1 ) Sovereignty of the people ; ( 2 ) Repudiation of war as an instrument of national policy ; ( 3 ) Domination of civilian authorization over the military ; ( 4 ) Service and protection of the people as the premier responsibility of the Government ; ( 5 ) Separation of Church and State ; ( 6 ) Guarantee of human rights ; ( 7 ) Separation of power among the assorted subdivisions of authoritiess ; and ( 8 ) Autonomy for local authorities units. One of the cardinal constituents of the Constitution is the Bill of Rights. which declares and enumerates the basic rights and autonomies of the people which the authorities ( or any individual ) is out to go against or infringe upon. Among the rights granted by the Fundamental law are: ( 1 ) Due procedure of jurisprudence and equal protection ; ( 2 ) Right against unreasonable hunt and ictus ; ( 3 ) Right of privateness ; ( 4 ) Freedom of address. of look. and of the imperativeness ; ( 5 ) Freedom of faith ; ( 6 ) Autonomy of residence and travel ; ( 7 ) Right to information on affairs of public concern ; ( 8 ) Right to organize associations for intents non contrary to jurisprudence ; ( 9 ) Right to a merely compensation when private belongings is taken for public usage ; ( 10 ) Right against damage of contract ; ( 11 ) Freedom of entree to the tribunals ; ( 12 ) Rights refering to individuals under probe ; ( 13 ) Right against inordinate bond ; ( 14 ) Rights of the accused in condemnable instances ; and ( 15 ) Right to speedy temperament of instances. It has been revised seven times. get downing from The 1899 Malolos Constitution. which was approved by so President Emilio Aguinaldo on December 23. 1898 and promulgated on January 21. 1899. and so the Philippine Organic Act of 1912 enacted into jurisprudence by the United States Congress on July 1. 1902. Next was The Jones Law of 1916. enacted into jurisprudence by the United States Congress on August29. 1916. followed by The 1935 Constitution. which was approved by the 1934 Constitutional Convention on February 8. 1935. certified by the President of the United States on March 25. 1935. and ratified by plebiscite on May 14. 1935. This was amended two times. on June 18 1940 and March 11. 1947. The 1943 Constitution. was approved by the Preparatory Committee on Philippine Independence on September 4. 1943 and ratified by the KALIBAPI convention on September 7. 1943. Following this is The 1973 Constitution. which was proclaimed in force by Proclamation by so President Ferdinand Marcos on January 17. 1973. This was amended three times. on October 16-17. 1976. January 30. 1980 and April 7. 1981. The present fundamental law. which is The 1987 Constitution. was foremost presented to so President Cory C. Aquino as The 1986 Freedom Constitution on October 15. 1986. This was approved by the Constitutional Commission on October 12. 1986. It was ratified by a plebiscite on February 2. 1987 and proclaimed in force by February 11. 1987. Mentions:Pacaway. J. ( 2014. July 4 ) . Filipino authorities with 1987 fundamental law. Retrieved from hypertext transfer protocol: //www. slideshare. net/anjanet2/philippine-government-with-1987-constitution Filipino Constitutions | Official Gazette of the Republic of the Philippines. ( n. d. ) . Retrieved from hypertext transfer protocol: //www. gov. ph/constitutions/ Salinas. S. ( 2013. December 16 ) . Concepts of province and authorities. Retrieved from hypertext transfer protocol: //www. slideshare. net/sarahsalinascatwoman/concepts-of-state-and-government-29249128 THE 1987 CONSTITUTION OF THE REPUBLIC OF THE PHILIPPINES – ARTICLE I | Official Gazette of the Republic of the Philippines. ( n. d. ) . Retrieved from hypertext transfer protocol: //www. gov. ph/constitutions/the-1987-constitution-of-the-republic-of-the-philippines/the-1987-constitution-of-the-republic-of-the-philippines-article-i/ The History and Evolution of the Philippine Constitution | Law | Jcmiras_03. ( 2014. August ) . Retrieved from hypertext transfer protocol: //www. pinoysites. org/jcm/item/12/ The Constitution of the Philippines: An Overview | Herald Digital Law Philippines. ( 2011. February 1 ) . Retrieved from hypertext transfer protocol: //philippineslaw. wordpress. com/2011/02/01/the-constitution-of-the-philippines-an-overview/

Friday, March 6, 2020

How to Cut out the Clutter in Professional Writing

How to Cut out the Clutter in Professional Writing What we take out of our writing can be just as important as what we put in. Here well apply some key editing strategies for cutting out needless wordsdeadwood that only bores, distracts, or confuses our readers. First, Review Tips to Cut the Clutter Before starting this exercise, you may want to review the ten points introduced in Tips to Cut the Clutter and More Ways to Cut the Clutter: Reduce long clauses to shorter phrases.Reduce phrases to single words.Avoid There is, There are, and There were as sentence openers.Dont overwork modifiers.Avoid redundancies.Use active verbs.Dont try to show off.Cut empty phrases.Avoid using noun forms of verbs.Replace vague nouns with more specific words. Practice Cutting the Clutter Now, lets put this advice to work. The sentences below contain unnecessary words. Without eliminating any essential information, revise each sentence to make it more concise. When youre done, compare your revisions with the shortened sentences below them. In the cellar there are four wooden-type crates with nothing in them that might perhaps be used by us for storing paint cans inside of.This morning at 6:30 a.m., I woke up out of sleep to hear my alarm go off, but the alarm was turned off by me, and I returned back to a sleeping state.The reason that Merdine was not able to be in attendance at the hockey game was because she had jury duty.Omar and I, we returned back to the hometown where we both grew up to attend a reunion of the people that we went to high school with ten years ago in the past.Melba has designed a very unique kind of shirt that is made out of a polyester type of material that never creases into wrinkles when it rains and the shirt gets wet.She used her money to purchase a large-type desk made of mahogany wood that is dark brown in color and handsome to look at.In view of the fact that it was raining down, orders were given that the game be canceled.At that point in time when Marie was a teenager the basic fundament als of how to dance were first learned by her. Some sort of identification that would show how old we were was requested of us by the man that collects tickets from people at the movie theater.There is a possibility that one of the causes of so many teenagers running away from home is the fact that many of them have indifferent parents who dont really care about them. Here are edited versions of the sentences in  Practice in Cutting the Clutter. We could store the paint cans in the four wooden crates in the cellar.I awoke this morning at 6:30 but then turned off the alarm and went back to sleep.Because she had jury duty, Merdine was not at the hockey game.Omar and I returned to our hometown to attend our ten-year high school reunion.Melba has designed a polyester shirt that never creases when wet.She purchased a large, handsome-looking mahogany desk.The game was canceled because of rain.Marie learned how to dance when she was a teenager.The ticket collector at the movie theater asked us for identification.Perhaps one reason that so many teenagers run away from home is that their parents dont care about them.

Tuesday, February 18, 2020

Advantages and disadvantages of a testing system in education Research Proposal

Advantages and disadvantages of a testing system in education - Research Proposal Example Pedagogy depends on the capability of a teacher to test student's knowledge of the material.Testing serves a number of functions,which are the measurement of progress a student is making,and the provision of an incentive for a student to learn the material Without testing, teachers would rely on faith that their students have learning as one of their goals; however, this assumption, especially in the era of compulsory education, is simply out of touch with reality. Having established that testing is a necessary component of teaching, the question then becomes what kinds of testing are most effective in achieving the established ends of teaching, and how does one design a test that achieves these ends. To answer this question, one must consider the context (and the material) being taught and, instead of relying on generalizations, decide based on the costs of efficiency versus effectiveness in measuring genuine knowledge of the material. Although some tend to focus more on efficiency (standardized testing) and others on effectiveness (non-standardized testing), it seems the most appropriate, wide-reaching solution to the problem lies somewhere in the middle. A standardized test is a measurement instrument that is distributed and scored in a standard manner; that is, it is constructed with a particular set of conditions, questions, and scoring procedures that do not differ between individuals (Popham). Popular methods used on a standardized test include multiple-choice questions, which can be quickly and objectively scored on a large scale, making them cost-efficient and time-efficient to use. In contrast, a non-standardized test is a measurement instrument that gives different test takers a different exam, or relies on subjective or partially subjective criteria in the scoring of answers given on a completed test. Common methods used in non-standardized testing are essay questions, mathematical calculations, and open-ended responses. One advantage of standardize d testing is that the results of such tests are empirically useful in terms of a large scale. For instance, public policy decisions can be made by looking at decreasing state-administered tests in public schools if deficiencies in a particular subject are patent. Also, because scores are objectively scored and documented, it is possible to demonstrate validity and reliability with a controlled experiment. If two children from the same classroom score in the same range, it could be said the test is a valid instrument for measuring knowledge. When a test is statistically reliable, it can be shown to be replicable on a larger scale (Kuncel and Hezlett). Aggregation is a term that refers to the collection of scores on the same test from many different test takers; this provides a mean, or benchmark, against which an individual test taker can be evaluated comparatively. This can provide useful information above and beyond subjective assessments from individuals in that elimination based on standardized scores can narrow a search for individuals based on objective criteria and thus make a search procedure more efficient in a useful sort of way. In addition, it is often said this use of objective standards for comparing individuals is fairer than other methods, which may take into account other factors that use subjective methods. Critics of standardized testing believe it is restrictive in that it necessarily confines and segments knowledge into rigid categories, focusing more on broad swathes of reading and math skills, as opposed to initiative, creativity, imagination, conceptual thinking, curiosity, effort, irony, judgment, commitment, nuance, good will, ethical reflection, or a host of other valuable dispositions and attributes†, which some believe are virtues for accomplished students and successful adults that are simply ignored under the standardized testi